Tree Surgery Terms

This Arboricultural service is carried out by Our qualified operators to ensure a sympathetic & tailored result is achieved, whilst remaining focused on being safe & considerate. as arborists we are committed to providing a quality Tree maintenance service, which is performed by a qualified and experienced team.


We pride ourselves on the quality of our maintenance services, balancing the need of the client whilst also carrying out the works in a way that the tree remains viable and true to form.  


Timing of Works 

The effects on the tree of both seasonal factors and weather conditions should be taken into account before pruning is undertaken Ideally, as a general principle for maintenance of vitality,

trees should not be pruned during periods of water stress or during spring growth (when sugar and starch reserves are depleted), until new leaves have fully expanded and matured, or starch reserves have been replenished. Sufficient time should be allowed for a tree to recover following any damage or adverse management that might have increased its vulnerability to physiological dysfunction, before carrying out any further extensive pruning.


Any works should be planned so as to limit their potential adverse impact on wildlife generally; Wildlife & Countryside act ; i.e. Bird Nesting season Bs3998 (2010) guidance on Tree works

Formative pruning 

This begins in the nursery. A tree needs to build a strong stem to support its crown & lateral growth.

Crown thinning

Thinning is aimed to reduce the density of foliage, thus admitting more light and air into the crown and reduce wind resistance.


In crown thinning, an even density of foliage should be retained throughout a well-spaced and balanced branch structure which could,if required, provide an adequate framework for a possible future crown reduction. If the objective is to lessen the overall loading on a defective branch or stem, crown reduction and reshaping should be chosen in preference to crown thinning.


Crown thinning is not the most suitable method of reducing the overall loading on a defective branch or stem, since it does not reduce leverage and sometimes increases the probability of branch failure. It is rarely a once-only operation.

The percentage of the leaf-bearing twig structure to be removed in crown thinning should be kept to the minimum required to achieve the objective and in any case should not exceed 30%.

Crown cleaning

This refers to the removal of dead, dying or diseased wood in the tree crown. It also involves attention to snags or re pruning of branch stubs, unwanted climbing plants, accumulated wind blown debris.

Crown lifting

Whenever clearance is needed beneath trees, crown lifting is the procedure adopted. This involves the complete or partial removal of branches to give a specified clearance from the ground, to give unhindered movement around the tree.


Extensive crown lifting should if possible be phased over a number of years, with a view to providing some opportunity for physiological and biomechanical adaptation to the resulting wounding and branch removal.

Crown lifting should be avoided or minimized in mature or old trees if possible, since it can increase the probability of stem failure 


Crown lifting that involves cutting back branches to the stem(s) should preferably not result in the removal of more than 15% of the live crown height

Crown reduction

Not all trees can be given this treatment, reduction of the leaf bearing limbs The aim should be to retain the natural outline [ form ] of the tree.


An operation that results in an overall reduction in the height and/or spread of the crown [ canopy ] of a tree by means of a general shortening of twigs and/or branches, whilst retaining the main framework of the crown


Crown reduction alleviates biomechanical stress by reducing both the leverage and the sail area of the tree, and can allow retention of a tree in a confined space. It can also be used to create a desired appearance or to make the tree more suited to its surroundings

Dead wooding 

This refers to the removal of dead, dying or diseased wood and dead limbs from the crown of the tree those limbs which cross rub or overly compete with each other of are poorly formed and located within the upper canopy, the volumes and diameters of the removal d ovary according to the hazard and risk to targets from falling timber.